Peter Rich of Peter Rich Architects in South Africa has dedicated his career to the service of the less privileged. His projects include low-income housing, community centers and children’s facilities. The Mapungubwe Interpretation Center in Limpopo, South Africa, a project recently completed, looks to the local culture and ecology for its design inspiration. Situated in the site of an ancient trading civilization at the confluence of the Pimpopo and Shashe rivers the in Mapungubwe National Park, the building houses artifacts from the region’s early pre-historic civilizations and reflects the complex natural landscape around it in both form and materiality.
Employing parabolic curves made from locally sourced and fabricated rammed earth bricks, the resulting structure is both elegant and sustainable. Rich worked with local residents during the design and construction process, teaching them how to manufacture the stabilized earth tiles and how to construct the vaults and arches. These vaults, called Timbrel vaults, create a composition of light, billowing forms that seem to peel away from the structures below, revealing the history inside. The building is contained by two hollow cairns, which are reminiscent of the route-markers found in the native South African cultures of the region.
The building, both in its creation and in its final end use is deeply rooted in its site both culturally and physically. The center is meant to not only display the cultural history of the site, but also to elicit a better understanding for the vulnerability of the local ecology. The building has been nominated for several awards including the Holcim Award for Sustainable Construction in 2008. The structure won the World Building of the Year at the World Architecture Festival in Barcelona, 2009, being praised by the jury for its ‘hand-crafted intelligence, use of local materials’ and the way it “handled issues of sustainability and its relationship to the landscape, responding to vernacular African styles’.
Plus Energy Settlement Weiz, Germany architect: Erwin Kaltenegger photo: Gunter Lang
- photo: Binder Holz
photo: Binder Holz
The San Francisco Bay Area is rich with examples of Green Architecture, and is arguably on the forefront of the green building movement. Many people here have heard of the Passive House Standard, but not many really know what it is or how it works.
In essence the term “passive house” represents the idea that these houses do not need to rely on large, conventional heating systems that require lots of energy to provide heat. Instead they passively recycle the free heat generated from sunlight and activities within the home, and are supplemented by smaller heating systems that require far less energy to run. Turning lights on, running the refrigerator, cooking, using a computer, and the people provide a constant source of free heat. This heat is contained inside the building envelope and is recycled by transferring it from outgoing stale air to incoming fresh air through a heat recovery ventilator. The houses are so well insulated and air-tight, that warm air does not escape through the building envelope and cold air isn’t allowed to creep in.
If you compare a Passive House with a conventional home, a Passive House is up to 80% more energy efficiennt, indoor air quality is superior, and the buildings themselves are more comfortable to live in since the temperature does not fluctuate.
It is critical that we start applying t he Passive House concept before relying on alternative energy sources such as solar or wind energy. Think of it this way: only using solar power as a remedy against energy waste is similar to resolving the problem of a leaky gas tank by ignoring the leak and filling up with biofuel instead of gasoline. It might make us feel better, but it doesn’t change the fact that our gas tanks are leaking and energy is being waster. They help, but ignore the core problem, which is our buildings are energy hogs.
Here in the Bay Area, where our climate is relatively mild, it is one of the easiest places to reach Passive House standards. We have no excuse for building structures that waste heat and require us to turn on our heaters. In summer, we can turn off the heat-recovery ventilator and throw open the windows and doors to enjoy the nice weather. In winter, the mechanical heat-recovery ventilator can be used to allow the building to “breathe” without wasting energy. Fresh, filtered air is circulated 24 hours a day, resulting in better indoor air quality and energy efficiency.
Buildings are responsible for 40% of all energy consumed and Green House Gas emissions. Clearly, the building sector needs to reverse this trend to avoid the possible catastrophic consequences of climate change. The best way to achieve this is through energy efficiency. The Passive House Standard has been tested throughout Europe over the last 15 years and is a proven strategy. Researching this standard and adapting this know-how and experience to our building industry is the fastest path to designing and building projects that perform to higher standards of energy efficiency, comfort and improved indoor air quality.
photo: Internorm Windows
photo: Internorm Windows
Nabih Tahan, AIA, MRAI is a licensed architect who returned to Berkeley from Austria to remodel his home while demonstrating sustainable design and construction techniques being used in Europe. He is the founder and a principal of BauTechnologies.
For a few weeks in the fall the Solar Decathlon will transform the Mall in Washington D.C., stretching out before the Capitol Building into a laboratory for Green Architecture. The competition, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, brings students from around the world together to test the houses that they have designed, built, shipped and reassembled themselves. These houses represent the latest innovations in technology and the best and brightest design talent.
photo: Annessa Mattson
Each successive Decathlon brings stiffer competition. This is the fourth time the event has run and this year we are impressed by the waves of innovation not only in sustainable building practices, but in aesthetics. Green architecture does not mean ugly architecture after all! Team California brought home the Best in Architecture for their 800 square foot home that is as beautiful on the outside as it is on the inside.
photo: Annessa Mattsonphoto: Annessa Mattson
photo: Annessa Mattson
From the drawing board to the flashing details, the architecture and engineering teams were working hard to ensure the design intent came through in the finished product. The team, comprised of undergraduate architecture students from California College of the Arts and engineering students from Santa Clara University, has been working for a full year to design and build their house. Like all truly green architecture the house is designed specifically to suit the climate where it will ultimately reside in Northern California. Green features include passive solar design with maximized south facing glazing; a 8.1-kW photovoltaic system on the roof with panels that are integrated into the architecture; a radiant floor and ceiling system that both heats and cools the home; a seasonal greywater pond that feeds the landscape, including an edible garden terrace; and materials and lighting chosen with careful consideration to embodied energy and lifecycle.
photo: Annessa Mattson
- photo: Annessa Mattson
It’s not often that architecture students are challenged to actually build what they’ve put onto paper. The engineers were a critical part of the team, helping the architecture students to problem solve as the construction began. The house was constructed over a course of 9 months on Santa Clara’s campus. The end result of the collaborative effort is quite stunning.
The design allowed for the building to break apart into three pieces and be loaded onto trucks for the long ride to Washington DC for the big event. On the mall the house had to be pieced together, and all the finishing touches re-applied to ready the house for the throngs of visitors who descend upon the mall to tour the houses.
photo: Annessa Mattsonphoto: Annessa Mattson
photo: Annessa Mattson
- photo: Annessa Mattson
The houses were judged in 10 areas including Architecture, Engineering, Market Viability, Net Metering (energy production vs. consumption), and Communications. All of the scores from each contest are totaled for the overall Decathlon winner. This year’s winner is Team Germany, with Illinois, and Team California close on their heels. Team California took home first in the Architecture and Communications categories and second place in Engineering. Congratulations, Team California, and thank you for showing us how beautiful green architecture can be.
photo: Annessa Mattson
Photo: Stefano Paltera/US Deptartment of Energy Solar Decathlon
photo: Emily Hagopian (www.EmilyHagopian.com)
As architects, we weave the complexities of program, design, regulations, technology, budget and fee, while managing clients, projects, and liability. Proposed changes to our workflow frequently interrupt our momentum. Changes to our design process that seem burdensome ultimately transform our work and improve our buildings. The process of commissioning is new to many of us, and we are finally learning how to make it an effective design tool.
USGBC introduced commissioning to us by way of LEED-NC EA prerequisite 1: Fundamental Commissioning, and EA credit 3: Enhanced Commissioning. For most of us, our first question was, ”What is commissioning?” Fortunately there are several resources and industry experts, who are helping us understand this improvement and clarification to our evolving design process.
Let’s start with some definitions:
Building commissioning (Cx) provides documented confirmation that all building systems, including mechanical, electrical, lighting and controls function according to criteria set forth in the project documents to satisfy the owner’s operational needs.
A commissioning agent (CxA) typically provides commissioning services as a consultant to the owner. On some LEED projects the CxA is hired by the architect.
There are several documents that must be sequentially produced in order to satisfy LEED requirements:
Owner’s Project Requirements (OPR): Produced by Owner with Design Team & CxA assistance
Basis of Design (BOD): Produced by Design Team with CxA assistance
Commissioning Specifications: By Architect/Spec Writer with CxA/ LEED Consultant assistance
Commissioning Plan: Produced by Contractor with CxA assistance
Installation Verification & Performance Testing: By CxA & Installing contractors
O&M Staff Training: By Installing Contractors & CxA
Building Manual: By General Constractor with CxA assistance
Summary Report: By CxA
The intent of the commissioning process is to create the Owner’s Project Requirements (OPR) along with the program during pre-design. Unfortunately, most projects are well into design development or construction documents before a LEED consultant is hired and the commissioning process begins. So, ultimately the OPR is merely an exercise to satisfy LEED rather than being a useful design tool.
In an “integrated design” process, commissioning begins during pre-design. Architects must coach their clients to complete the OPR during pre-design. Once the OPR is created, then the design team, led by the architect and engineers with the assistance of the CxA (or LEED consultant on small projects), produces the Basis of Design (BOD). From the BOD flows the project specifications, which require a commissioning section in addition to a LEED requirements section. As the design changes, the OPR and BOD should be updated to reflect those changes.
At the beginning of construction the contractor takes the lead by producing a Commissioning Plan, which is outlined in the specifications. The CxA will facilitate a pre-construction meeting with the installing contractors and engineers to establish expectations and ensure that the design intent and commissioning requirements are understood. The CxA will work with contractors during installation and start-up as required to meet LEED requirements. Performance tests and construction photos provide backup documentation, which must be available for audit by USGBC.
At the completion of construction a building manual will be produced by the contractor. O&M staff must be trained along with full time occupants of the facility. The CxA will produce a Commissioning Report, which summarizes the entire Cx process for the project. Frequently, this report is the last document uploaded into LEED online before the construction phase submittal to USGBC. Add another 5-8 weeks before the project received certification from USGBC.
We recommend the following resources for additional information and instruction:
EDR Commissioning Handbook & Online Templates www.energydesignresources.com
USGBC: Who Can Commission? www.usgbc.org/ShowFile.aspx?DocumentID=1262
Commissioning On Purpose, by Coleman & Coleman www.eeiengineers.com
US Dept. of Energy Building Toolbox www.eere.energy.gov
Commissioning Resources www.michaelheacock.com/toolslinks/commissioning.html
Michael Heacock + Associates is a LEED consulting firm with offices in San Francisco and Santa Barbara. Their work includes schools, commercial, public, institutional and residential projects.
The techniques of lighting have greatly evolved beyond simple table lamps and chandeliers, yet many homeowners have not updated their thinking much beyond this approach. So much of what we see in current design magazines and books are the ultra modern, ultra clean interiors. It’s true that progressive design is a hot topic, but it’s not for everyone. How does the owner of a more traditionally styled house make use of today’s lighting techniques? Can new lighting techniques be applied to non cutting edge spaces to enhance the sense of warmth and comfort that these cozy interiors inspire?
The answer is a resounding…yes
The trick is to keep the lighting upgrades subtle so that the decorative light sources can remain the architectural jewelry for a home. Chandeliers and table lamps are an important element to most all styles of residences. They are needed to provide the ambiance for a room without necessarily providing all the necessary illumination on their own. This applies outside of a home as well. Adding a layer of accent lights, hidden among the plantings, allows the lanterns at the front door and by the garage to provide the illusion of providing the main light without visually over powering the landscaping.
Sometimes residential lighting design takes a backseat to wondrous commercial projects as far as eye catching design goes. Lighting for homes needs to be more subtle than what goes into public spaces. A restaurant or theater project can dive headfirst into the realm of fantasy design. Patrons want to be transported to a place that is a different world than what they experience at home. Yet, when homeowners are in their personal spaces they want to be able to have various levels of functional illumination for the mundane, but ever so important tasks, that are a part of day-to-day living.
Lighting can be a tremendous force. It’s the one factor that makes all the other elements in design work together. Yet it has for so long been the last thing considered and the first item cut from budget. The result has left many homes drab, uncomfortable, and dark. Too often the blame goes elsewhere, when improper lighting is the true culprit. Becoming better acquainted with the components of good lighting will allow homeowners to communicate their needs more clearly with the sales staff in lighting showrooms and the contractors whom they have hired to do the installation.
Light has four specific duties. They are to provide decorative, accent, task, and ambient illumination. No one light source can perform all the functions of lighting required for a specific space. Understanding what these terms mean will help homeowners make better decisions that will integrate illumination into the overall design and give them what they want. Here is a description of these four functions that puts them into terms that can be easily understood by everyone involved:
Light fixtures such as chandeliers, candlestick-type wall sconces, and table lamps work best when they are used to create the sparkle for a room. They alone cannot adequately provide usable illumination for other functions without overpowering the rest of the design aspects of the space. I call them the supermodels of illuminations. Their only job is to look fantastic.
For example, a dining room, illuminated only by the chandelier over the table, creates a glare-bomb situation. As you crank up the dimmer to provide enough illumination to see your guests, the intensity of the light source causes everything to fall into secondary importance. This one supernova of uncomfortable bright light eclipses the wall color, the art, the carpeting, and especially the people sitting at the table.
By nature, any bright light source in a room or space immediately draws people’s attention. They won’t see all the other elements, no matter how beautiful or expertly designed. For example, linen shades on table lamps draw too much attention to themselves when they are the only light source in a room. Consider using a shade with an opaque liner and possible a perforated lid to help direct the illumination downwards over the base, the tabletop and across your lap for reading. We’ll cover this in a little more detail in the section on task lighting below.
Accent light is directed illumination that highlights objects within an environment. Light sources such as track and recessed adjustable fixtures are used to bring attention to art, sculpture, tabletops and plantings. Just like any of the four functions, accent light cannot be the only source of illumination in a room. If you use only accent light, you end up with the museum effect, where the art visually takes over the room, while the guests fall into darkness. Subconsciously, the people will feel that the art is more important than they are.
Good accent lighting thrives on subtlety. A focused beam of light directed at an orchid or highlighting an abstract painting above a primitive chest can create a marvelous effect. People won’t notice the light itself; they see only the object being illuminated. The lighting effect achieves its magic through its very invisibility.
In the movies, if we can tell how a special effect has been achieved, we feel cheated. We don’t want to know, because we want to think it’s magic. In lighting, it should be no less the case. We want to see the effects of light, but the method needs to remain unseen. That subtlety is what will give the design a cohesive wholeness, allowing the architecture, the furnishings and the landscape to become the focus in a particular space, not the decorative fixtures or the bulbs glaring out from within them.
This is illumination for performing work-related activities in the home, such as reading, cutting vegetables, and sorting laundry. The optimal task light is located between your head and your work surface. That’s why illumination coming from above isn’t a good source of task light, because your head casts a shadow onto your book, computer keyboard, or recipe book.
Table lamps with solid shades often do the very best job for casual reading, because they better direct the light and don’t visually overpower the room when turned up to the correct intensity for the job at hand. Fluorescent or incandescent linear shelf lights too, are a good source of task illumination at a desk with a shelf located above the work surface or in the kitchen when mounted under the overhead cabinets.
Ambient light is the soft, general illumination that fills the volume of a room with a glow of light, and softens the shadows on people’s faces. It is the most important of the four functions of light, but is often the one element that is left out of the design of a room or space.
The best ambient light comes from sources that bounce illumination off the ceiling and walls. Such light fixtures as opaque wall sconces, torches, indirect pendants and cove lighting can provide a subtle general illumination without drawing attention to the light source. You could call is the open-hearth effect, where the room seems to be filled with the light of a glowing fire.
Just filling a room with table lamps is not an adequate source of illumination. The space winds up looking like a lamp shade showroom. Let these lamps be a decorative source, creating little islands of light. Using opaque shades and perforated metal lids, as was mentioned earlier, can turn these fixtures into more effective reading lights (task lights) if that is their main purpose.
Utilizing other sources to provide the necessary ambient light lets the decorative fixtures create the illusion of illuminating the room, without dominating the design. This inclusion of an ambient light source works only if the ceiling is light in color. A rich plum colored ceiling in a Victorian-style dining room or a dark wooden ceiling in a cabin retreat would make indirect light sources ineffective, because the dark surfaces absorb light instead of reflecting it.
In situations such as these the solution may be to lighten the color of the ceiling. Yes, what I am saying here is that sometimes the answer is to alter the environment rather than change the light source. Instead of the whole ceiling being eggplant-colored, how about painting a wide border in that color with the rest of the ceiling done in a cream color or similar hue? A wooden ceiling could be washed with an opaque stain that gives it a more weathered look without taking away from the wood feel itself, as simple painting would do. In both cases, using a chandelier or pendant fixture with a hidden indirect source could provide the much needed ambient light while maintaining a traditional look.
Ambient light, too, just like the other three functions, should not be used by itself. What you end up with is the cloudy day effect, where everything is of the same value, without depth or dimension. Ambient light alone is a flat light. It is only one component of well-designed lighting.
Light layering, the bottom line
A lighting design is succecssful when these four functions of light are layered within a room to create a fully usable, adaptive space. Good lighting does not draw attention to itself, but to the other design aspects of the environment. An entryway, for example, desperately needs ambient and accent light, but may not need any task light, because no work is going to be done in the entry. However, there may be a coat closet, which would need some task-oriented illumination. The addition of a ceiling mounted decorative fixture helps set the tone for the rest of the house.
What we often see in various design magazines is a house lighted for entertaining only. It is a very dramatic, glitzy look. Every vase, painting, sculpture and ashtray glistens in its own pool of illumination. Yet, the seating area remains in darkness. What are these people going to do for light when they want to go through the mail, do their taxes, or put a puzzle together with their kids?
In reality, people entertain only part of the time. The rest of the time these rooms are used to do homework, clean, and interact with other family members or guests. This doesn’t mean that you should eliminate accent lighting. Just don’t make it the only option. Simply putting ambient light on one dimmer and accent lighting on another provides a whole range of illumination level settings. Don’t forget to add a layer of task light and decorative light to the mix as well.
If once the installation is done and someone walks in and says, “Oh, you put in track lighting, it means that hte lighting system itself is the first thing seen which kind of defeats the purpose. If they walk in and say, “You look great!” or “Is that a new painting?” then you know the lighting is successfully integrated into the overall room design and that you have done a good job.
photo: Dennis Anderson
This family room uses a pendant fixture by Lightspann to offer both decorative and ambient light, while recessed adjustable low voltage fixtures by Lucifer Lighting add a layer of accent lighting.
photo: Dennis Anderson
This beautiful alabaster pendant by JH Lighting draws people to the table while adding a wonderful glow of flattering indirect lighting. Recessed low voltage fixtures by Lucifer lighting add a visual punch to the art.
photo: Dennis Anderson
Pendant fixtures by Lightspann help create a more human scale for this living room. Low voltage tracks, mounted along the apex beam, create the much needed accent lighting.
photo: Dennis Anderson
A series of four fluorescent pendants by Flos give both fill lighting and a decorative element to this kitchen. Warm colored fluorescent puck lights by Tresco International provide task lighting along the countertops.
photo: Dennis Anderson
Subtle lighting from above creates a dappled pattern of light and shadow for this intimate garden.
Randall Whitehead has written seven books on the subject of lighting design. His latest book is Residential Lighting, A Guide to Beautiful and Sustainable Design. All of Randall’s books can be ordered at Book Masters by calling 800.247.6553 or via email email@example.com. Samples of his work, books, and video clips can be seen on his website www.randallwhitehead.com.
I have to say it’s an exciting time to be practicing architecture. Yes the economy has put all sorts of new pressures on us and challenges in our path. But the mainstreaming of environmental considerations is delivering architects much more enlightened clients and an abundance of new products, materials and strategies that will allow us to create bold new designs.
The early years of the green architecture movement largely produced buildings that single-mindedly wrestled with the technical issues of energy and resource conservation while neglecting larger design issues. As a result sustainable architecture gained a reputation as being clunky and funky. This led the next generation of designers and builders to try to hide their efforts, often placing solar panels or water catchment systems behind screening elements.
There is now emerging a new wave of green design that is treating the unique materials, systems and strategies of sustainable building as opportunities that can generate new and exciting forms. It took architects a while to figure out that steel from the industrial revolution would allow them to break from classic proportions of masonry columns and beams, and that steel could lead to magnificent new forms. Today we are we beginning to see new structures that embrace and express our new building blocks. Let’s look at the beauty of what is possible when we choose to celebrate rather than hide our green.
Renzo Piano’s California Accadamy of Sciences integrates photo-voltaic panels to form an energy-harvesting sunshade.
Glenn Murcutt uses water-harvesting tanks as bold forms to compliment the pure geometries of his buildings.
This stunning Vertical Park by Jorge Hernandez de la Garza intends to infuse the city with much-needed green space in the form of a modular skyscraper made up of a series of stacking units. The solar-powered structure contains sky-gardens in addition to spaces for living and working, and recycles all of its own water.
Michael Jantzen’s Sun Rays Pavilion, consists of 12 massive columns that rise out of the earth like giant crystals reaching for the sun. Appropriate, because the acutely slanted building relies on the sun’s rays alone for power.
Designed in the shape of a drop of water, the Water Building Resort intends to become the first building ever to convert air into water with the help of solar power. It’s south facing facade made of photovoltaic glass will harness solar energy, allowing light to pass through. The northern facade features a latticed design for ventilation as well as Teex Micron equipment that will convert humid air and condensation into pure drinking water.
This new school of art, design, and media at Nanyang Technological University takes advantage of advanced green room technologies to add much needed structure while preserving scarce open space.
Vicent Callebaut’s Lilypad is a true amphibian – half aquatic and half terrestrial city – able to accommodate 50,000 inhabitants and inviting the biodiversity to develop its fauna and flora around a central lagoon of soft water collecting and purifying the rain waters. This artificial lagoon is entirely immersed, ballasting the city. It enables inhabitants to live in the heart of the sub aquatic depths.
Jonathan Feldman is the Editorial Director of Green Architecture Notes as well as the Principal of Feldman Architecture.